The Sanskrit writers cultivated poetry to such an extent that every work, whether on philosophy or any other subject came to be written in verse. Thousands of couplets embodying in them choicest thoughts on various subjects are used in learned conversation, and a man is not considered as learned, unless he is able to repeat some celebrated saying. A collection of such epigrams handed over to us by generations of Shastris is known as 'Subhashitas' ..
Na tasyaadir-na tasyaanto madhye yastasya tishthati
Tavaapyasti mamaapyasti yadi jaanaasi tadvadah.
It has neither a beginning nor an end but stays in the middle position. You have it and I too have it.
If you have rightly guessed then tell me what it is ?
Tasya + aadi = Tasyaadi i.e. it's beginning Tasya + anto = Tasyaanto i.e. it's end
The answer to yesterday's riddle is a Coconut (नारियल ), because it exists at the top of the coconut tree, the kernel inside the outer shell has three round spots (akin to Shiva's three eyes) , it's outer skin is smooth (like the bare body of a Yogi) , and inside it's kernel (when in unripe condition) it contains a sweet watery substance, which is used as a drink to quench thirst.
The answer of to day's riddle will be given tomorrow.
In Sanskrit poetry there is a form of writing known as Prahelika meaning a riddle, in which the writer gives some hints about an object and asks the reader to identify .it. It is a sort of a Mind Game and is liked very much,as it tests the intelligence of the reader.
(The answer to yesterday's riddle is an apparel known as "Angarkha' (akin to a coat now a days) worn over the upper middle part of the body.)
व्रक्षाग्र वासी न च पक्षिराजस्त्रिनेत्रधारी न च शूलपाणिः
द्रग्वस्त्रधारी न च सिद्धयोगी जलं च विभ्रन्न घटो न मेघः
Vrakshaagravaasi na cha pakshiraajs-trinetradhaari na cha shoolpaanih
Dragvastradhaari na cha siddhayogi jalam cha vibhrann ghato na meghah
It lives at the top of a tree but is not Garuda (the king of all flying birds), has three eyes but is not the 'Shoolpani' (another name of Lord Shiva), bare bodied but is not a 'Siddha Yogi', carries sweet water but is neither a pitcher nor a rain bearing cloud.
Pakshiraaj = In Hindu mythology 'Garuda' i.e. a large falcon is treated as the king of all species of animals that can fly because it is used by Lord Vishnu as his vehicle.
Vibhram = sweet or juicy. Ghata = a pitcher
Shoolpani = Another name of Lord Shiva because he always carries a Trident (a spear with bthree heads) and has three eyes.
In Sanskrit poetry there is a form of writing known as Prahelika meaning a riddle, in which the writer gives some hints about an object and asks the readers to identify it. It is a sort of a Mind Game and is liked very much, as it tests the intelligence of the reader.
अस्थि नाSस्ति शिरो नाSस्ति बाहुरस्ति निरन्गुलिः
नास्ति पादद्वयम गाढमंगलमालिन्गति स्वयं
It does not have any bones and a head. It has arms but without any fingers, is without both legs but tightly embraces itself.
Answer to yesterday's riddle :- The answer is a Needle with a thread. Because a needle has one small hole at its head through which thread is passed (ek chakshu i.e.one eyed). A crow is also supposed to have only one eye**) A needle also likes to pierce the cloth, akin to living inside a hole like a snake. The size of the needle also increases and decreases depending upon the length of the thread like the Sea and the Moon
** In Hindu mythology there is a tale that Jayant, son of Indra (the King of gods) by transforming himself as a crow hit the feet of Sita, the wife of Lord Rama. Angered at this, Rama threw a twig like an arrow at Jayant. To save himself from this arrow Jayant flew away but the arrow followed him where ever he went and no body came to his help. Ultimately he surrendered himself before Rama and begged forgiveness.Rama pardoned him but pierced one of his eyes. So it is said that since then a crow has only one eye that works.
In Sanskrit poetry there is form of writing known as PRAHELIKA meaning a riddle, in which the writer gives some hints about an object and asks the readers to identify it. It is a sort of a Mind Game and is liked very much, as it tests the intelligence of the reader.
एक चक्षुर्न काकोSयं बिलमिच्छन्न न पन्नगः
क्षीयते वर्धते चैव न समुद्रो न च न्द्रमा
Ek chakshurna kaakoyam bilmichanna na pannagah
ksheeyate vardhate chaiwa na Samudro na Chandrama
It is one eyed but is not a crow, likes to live inside a hole but is not a snake.
It also increases and decreases its size, but it is neither Sea nor Moon
Kaak = a crow. Pannag = snake.
Answer to yesterday's riddle: The answer is a Stud Bull, because it heads the cow herd. Bulls are usually branded with the sign of a Trident and Chakra (symbols of Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu). There is tradition in Hindu religion to brand the bulls with the signs of trident and chakra and then let them roam loose, dedicating them to the Gods. They no longer become draught animals to drag bullock carts and ploughs.
In Sanskrit poetry there is a form of writing known as Prahelika meaning a riddle, in which the writer gives some hints about an object and asks the readers to identify it. It is a sort of Mind Game and is liked very much, as it tests the intelligence of the reader.
गोपालो नैव गोपालस्त्रिशूली नैव शंकर:
अपि चक्री स नो विष्णुर्यो जानाति स पंडितः
He is the leader of a cow herd but not a cowboy, with a 'Trishool' but is not Lord Shanker (Shiva), he also have a 'Chakra' on him but he is not Lord Vishnu. If you are able to identify him you are a Pandit.
Gopal = A person whose, profession is to maintain cow herds and sell milk products
Chakra = A circular weapon of Lord Vishnu worn by him on his small finger. It returns back after killing the enemy. like a boomrang .
Trishool = A Trident ( a hand held spear with three prongs at its head, always held by Lord Shiva)
The answer to this riddle will be given tomorrow.
The answer to yesterday's riddle is a wooden boat. Wood, out of which a boat is crafted is produced (born) in a forest (Van), and after being crafted leaves the forest, but always remains in water (another meaning of 'Van'), It is available on hire against payment like a woman (in Sanskrit a boat is classified as a woman gender (Streelinga) but is not considered as a prostitute,who sells herself against payment.
panyastree na to saa veshyaa yo jaanaati sa Panditah
It is born in a forest and afterwards abandoned by the forest, always lives in water , is like a woman who can be hired on payment of money but is not a prostitute. Who ever is able to tell what it signifies is a Pandit.
In Sanskrit 'Vana' (वन )has two meanings namely (i) a forest and (ii) water.
Panya = payment made for hiring some thing. Pasnyastree = A woman who can be hired on payment of money.
Veshyaa = a prostitute
The answer to this riddle will be given tomorrow.
The answer to yesterday's riddle is a letter (Patra) sent to some one.
Prahelika is a form of writing in Sanskrit meaning a riddle in which the writer gives some hints about an object and asks the readers to identify it. It is a sort of mind game and is liked very much, as it tests the intelligence of the readers.
In Sanskrit poetry there is a form of writing known as PRAHELIKA meaning a riddle, in which the writer gives some hints about an object and asks the reader to identify it. It is sort of mind game and liked very much, as it tests the intelligence of the reader.
i will publish some of the Prahelikas from to day. The answer to the Prahelika will be given with the next day's Prahelika.
अपदौ दूरगामी च साक्षरो न च पण्डितः
अमुखः स्फुटवक्ता च यो जानाति स पण्डितः
Apadou doorgaami cha saakshro na cha Panditah
Amukhah sphutvaktaa cha yo jaanaati sa Panditah.
The object in question is without any feet (apadou) but is able to traverse long distances, is well lettered but is not a Pandit. It is also without any mouth (amukhah) but can speak very clearly. If you know what it is, you are a Pandit.
Apado = without any feet Amukhh = without a mouth
Sphutavaktaa = a person who can express his thout clearly without any ambiguity
Pandit = A person who is a scholar Saakshar = a person who can read and write.
i.e. Even if a person beautifies himself with ornaments and a necklace shining like full Moon, bathes and applies cosmetics, grooms his hair with scented oil and flowers, all these accessories do not make him a cultured person, if his diction (way of speaking) is not proper and refined and he is treated as a dirty person . On the other hand if a person is soft spoken and has command over his speech, even if he is not adorned with ornaments etc., he is always treated as a cultured person. So proper diction and command over language is the real ornament (bhushan) of a person.
Keyura = an ornament worn over the arm Moordhaja = hairs of the head Vilepanam = paste applied over the body (cosmetics) Vaani = way of speaking Bhushan = ornament
ksheeyante = become insignificant Hara = necklace Dharyate = wears or possesses
(Here the word 'Samalamkaroti' in association with the word 'ya' denotes two different meanings due to para-phrasing (i) Sa + Malam karoti means makes him unacceptable like faeces (human excreta) and (ii) Samyag + Alankaroti i.e. makes him overall adorable, if a person is 'sanskrat' i.e. cultured with proper diction (ya sanskrita dhaaryate) and all outwardly ornamentation becomes insignificant.
saa mam samprati sarvaroag janani praanaphantree kshudha.
i.e. Excessive hunger ( as also craving for any thing) in a person results in loss of his beauty, makes him lean and thin (krishkaree), reduces his sexual desire (kaamankurachhedani/maandkaree),makes his son unfriendly and creates differences with his wife and family members, reduces his tolerance (tapah kshyakaree) and totally eliminates his religiousness (dharmasya nirmoolanee). In fact,this hunger is the root cause of all sorts of illnesses , which ultimately results in death of the person concerned(praanaphantri kshudhaa).
(There is also another similar saying as "अतिः सर्वत्र वर्जयेत " atih sarvatra varjyeat i.e.too much of every thing (even good) should be avoided assiduously.
i.e. One should not have friendship with habitual liars because it does not give any 'Punya' and fame. Even a casual contact with such persons is not desirable as they are very dangerous like 'Kaalkoot' poison.
( As mentioned by me earlier, according to Hindu Mythology, during the process of 'Samudra Manthan' by Devaas and Danavaas, besides many useful things a very powerful poison named 'Kaalkoot' was produced from the Ocean which threatened every one. To save the humanity Lord Shiva drank that poison, which resulted in his throat becoming blue in colour.That is why he is also named as 'Neel kantha' i.e. one having a blue throat.)
Punya = If a person does virtuous deeds by helping others, it is said that he accumulates 'Punya' i.e. a sort of positive energy, which helps him in his future birth cycle (or even during the present one) in acquiring position of status , name and fame.
कार्येषु मन्त्री करणेषु दासी भोज्येषु माता शयनेषु रम्भा
धर्मानुकूलो क्षमया धरित्री भार्या च षड्गुन्यवतीह दुर्लभा
Kaaryeshu Mantri Karaneshu daasi bhojyeshu maata shayaneshu Rambha
Dharmaanukulo kshmyaa dharitri bharyaa cha shadgunyavatih durlabhaa
i.e. One is rarely able to get a woman as his wife who possesses six virtues, namely (i) helping like a counsel during work (ii) like an obedient maid servant to attend to daily chores (iii) providing food like his mother (iv) sensuous like Rambha (an Apsaraa in the Court of Indra, the king of gods) in his bedroom (v) following the same Religion and (vi) having tolerance and forgiveness like Mother Earth.
( Rambha is the name of an Apsraa (Court dancer and singer of Indra, the King of lesser Gods according to Hindu Mythology. Comparing a woman with Rambha implies that she is adept in entertaining her husband)
i.e Aging results in such a deterioration in a person's physique that his mouth becomes toothless, speech becomes garbled, his strength is dissipated and sexual urge totally lost. Ultimately a stage is reached where he becomes totally dependent on others just like a new born child.
i.e. When an Astrologer (daivagya) writes favourable and pleasing predictions in the horoscope (janmapatra) of a person and these predictions prove to be true, then he takes all the credit for this to his expertise in Astrology. However, if these predictions do not fructify, the astrologer attributes it's cause to some error in calculation of 'Lagna' . But under both these circumstances he robs the money of the person concerned, who does not have any chance to escape from his clutches.
(Astrology is an off-shoot of Astronomy, the science of movement of Planets in the Universe and deals with predicting the future of a person based on a chart called Janmapatri (natal chart), which is drawn according the position of various Planets in the Universe at the time of the birth of a person.This requires the precise time of birth based on which a 'Lagna' is calculated. Based on the interpretation of this chart the astrologer makes the 'predictions' which may or may not fructify.Although the Astrologers claim this to be a science like Astronomy,there being ample chances of manipulations by the astrologer, it is not considered as a Science. There are numerous stories of people being duped by cunning astrologers.)
i.e. Some where there is an assembly of learned persons (vidwadgoshthee) and somewhere drunkards are creating a row, whereas at another place people are mourning and weeping (over the death of a person). Somewhere a person is enjoying youth in the company of a beautiful woman (Raama) in stark contrast to an aged person with a badly wasted body due to old age. So no body is able to tell what is like 'Amrit' and what is like 'Visha' in this fickle world (asaar Sansaar).
(Amrit = A heavenly nector produced during "Samudra Manthan" (already referred in a 'shloka' posted previously). It is believed that one becomes immortal after drinking 'Amrit' So here 'Amritmaya' means a thing that is very pleasurable and beneficial. In contrast 'Visha" means a very potent poison which results in immediate death. So 'visha-maya' means a thing which brings all sorts of problems and sorrow to a person.)
सुखार्थी वा त्यजेत विद्याम विद्यार्थी वा त्यजेत सुखं
सु:खार्थिनो कुतो विद्या कुतो विद्यार्थिनः सुखं
Sukhaarthi wa tyajeeat vidyam vidyarthi wa tyajeat sukham
sukharthinah kuto vidya kuto vidyarthinah sukham.
i.e. Those who are in pursuit of a comfortable life (sukh) should forget about learning (vidya) and those who are in pursuit of learning should forget about comfortable living. Those who are after pleasures of life never become learned and those who want to be learned should never expect to lead an easy life as they have to toil to gain knowledge.
Janamaansamohakarinou tou vidhinaa vittasharou vinirmatou.
i.e. A prostitute and an Astrologer have similar traits and both look after their 'Panchaanga'. God has created both of them to befool and rob persons of their wealth.
Ganika = a prostitute
Ganak = an astrologer (not an astronomer) who predicts the future of persons against payment of a fee.
Panchaang = An almanac wherein five different elements of time are recorded, which is used by the astrologer as an aid to predict the future of a person.
Here 'panchang' has also reference to five parts of one's body such as face, ears ,eyes, nose and entire body structure. A prostitute has to always take care of her body to look beautiful and attractive
Although Bhairavi is a very popular Raag, there is some difference of opinion about it's chalan,vadi samvadi swaras,use of all shuddha and kopmal swaras in the Raag. So, for the benefit of all Members I have summarised these points after going through the opinion of various Scholars available with me.
1. Jaati All agree that it is Sampoorna-Sampoorna.
Aaroha - S r g m P d n S'
Avaroha- S' n d P m g r S
2 Vaadi -Samvadi
Pt.Omkar Nath Thakur has opined that depending upon the'Bhava' and 'Rasa' being expressed by the singer, these will change accordingly. In the 'poorvang' r and in the 'uttarang d will be Ansha swara, g and m will be 'Anugami' (follower). By general rule n will be 'Graha' swara, because the taans are usually taken starting from 'n. (Shri Thakur follows the old system of classification by Bharat Muni i.e.Grah, Ansh, Nyaas, Apanyas)
Pt.V.N.Bhatkhande has classified m as Vaadi and S as Samvadi but he says that some scholars are of the opinion that d and g should be vaadi and samvadi respectively and he has also recommended this classification.
Pt.Vinayak Rao Patvardhan as treated S as Vaadi and P as Samvadi.
Pt.Ramashrya Jha has also treated d as Vaadi and g as samvadi.
About the use of all shuddha and komal swaras in the Raag.
Now a days musicians use both the variants of Re Ga Ma Dha Ni in Bhairavi. This is acceptable to other scholars but not to Pt.Patewardhan. He is against this practice and has sarcastically remarked that fortunately Sa and Pa have no variants, otherwise these would also hav been used. He is of the opinion that only R and M may be used in such a way that the structure and 'maadhurya' of the Raag remains intact. According to Pt.Omkar Nath Thakur, through these experiments one can express different moods of a 'Naayika' in different situations of 'Naayika bheda' suchb as 'mugdha' 'navodha' 'abhisaarika' 'prodha' etc.
Shri Jha has stated that during the 50's Shuddha Rishav was used as a Vivadi swara and musicians treated m as vaadi swara, but the structure of the Raag has changed since then by the use of Shuddha Rishav as anuvadi swara and now Punjabi Bhairavi or better to say Sindhu Bhairavi is more prevalent due to frequent use of shuddha Rishav.
Bhairavi using all the notes is now called Mishra Bhairavi.
Shri Jha has explained as to how other swaras should be used in Bhairavi detailed hereunder:-
1. Shuddha Rishav - Only in Aaroha as 'd 'n S R g R (g) r S
2. Shuddha Gandhaar - g m P d n d P, m G m M m g - r S
.3 and Teevra Madhyam g m d Pgm M m (g) r as a Vivadi swara.
4. Shuddha Dhaiwat - g mP D n D n d P, nD m -r m P D n S' (d) P.
5. Shuddha Nishad - (attached to Sa) -, g, S r S r 'NS N S r S
Bhairavi has evolved from folk music. it is used mainly for non-serious popular music like Thumris, Dadra,bhajan,Tappa,Ghazal and light music and use of all swaras helps in this process, which is not liked by purists. Some other interesting observations
In practice aaroha is not done as S r g m P...but as 'n S g m P d n S' with Malkauns ang as this form is convenient and easy for doing taans.
If from thisa swarawali r a d are removed from aaroha it will bring Raag Dhanashri. If m and n are removed both in aroha and avaroha , we get Bhoopal Todi. S r g, r g r S, 'n sS r g, m g r g r S brings in Bilaskahni bTodi and S r m P d S, r' n d P m g r S brings in Komal Rishav Asavari
i.e. In a household where the guests are honored and greeted by washing their feet, giving them food and gifts, ancestors and Gods are worshiped , cows are reared, foodgrains are stocked, and there is no quarrel among it's members, the lady of the household is obedient, Lakshmi (the Goddess of riches and affluence) permanently stays in such a household.
i.e. Dullness of a person results in loss of his intelligence (dhiyo) , whereas association with noble persons improves (sinchati) his diction (way of speaking) ,makes him truthful, gives him honor and progress, deters him from doing sinful deeds (Paap), increases his intelligence (cheta) and expertise (dikshuh) and makes him famous (keerti).
So you tell me what else can the association with noble persons (satsangati) not do to a person ?
i.e. Lakshmi (the goddess of Riches and affluence) never stays in a household where the head of the family is an aged person wedded to a young woman, is unenterprising , bereft of courage,and leaves every thing to his fate.
i.e. In this fickle World the most important place is one's father-in-law's house, that is why even Lord Shiva's (Har) abode is in Himalaya Mountain and that of Lord Vishnu's (Hari) abode is in Ocean (Mahodadhi) ,
( The above shloka is an example of writing jestingly. Accordingly to Hindu Mythology there are three most important Gods known as 'Tridev' i.e. Lord Brahma , Lord Vishnu a.k.a Hari and Lord Mahesh a.k.a Har. Out of these 'Tridev' the abode of Lord Mahesh is Himalaya because his consort is Parvati, the daughter of Himwaan the King of Himalaya, and similarly the abode of Lord Vishnu is an ocean (known as Kshira Saagar - ocean of milk) as he is wedded to Godess Lakshmi,whose origin is from the ocean. The latter is another story known as "Samudra Manthan" describing how the vast Ocean was churned by Gods and Demons jointly and during that process many things came out including 'Amrita' (the nector making the drinker immortal), 'Halahal'(the strongest poison ,which Lord Mahesh drank to save the World, and also Lakshmi, the Goddess whom Lord Vishnu chose as his consort. Many jokes have been conceived in Sanskrit Literature over this incident by different authors.)
sandeepte bhawane to koop khanane pratyudamahh keedrashh.
i.e. So long as the body is free from ailments, old age is far away, sensory organs are intact and there is no degradation of life force, wise men continue to do philanthropic activities. For this purpose what better activity is there other than constructing mansions (public utilities) and digging of Wells ?
(Here the author considers construction of public utilities and providing facilities for drinking water (construction of wells) as the best philanthropic work among other such activities)
maetey yasya kutumbino vad sakhey kasmadbhayam yoginahh.
i.e O friend tell me can a 'Yogi' be afraid of any body, if among his family members patience is as his father, forgiveness as his mother, peace of mind as his wife, truth as his son, kindness as his sister, self-control over mind as his brother, floor as his bed, firmament as his clothes, and the essence of 'Gyaana' (knowledge) as his food.
Yogi = A person who practises the 'Yoga' system of Hindu Philosophy,in which he has control of all his faculties of head, heart and body.
Gyaan = acquiring of nKnowledge of every aspect of life and way of living.
i.e. Qualities of a person are recognized and respected every where and not his parentage (the family in which he is born) e.g. every body prays before Vaasudeva (Lord Krishna) and not before Vasudeva (father of Lord Krishna).
Amale malam niyachhati deep jwaaleava khala maitri.
i.e. Friendship with a mean person is like a flame of an earthen lamp (deep), depriving even a noble person of his noble qualities and bringing out negative traits of his personality, just as a flame of the earthen lamp burns it's cotton wick , sucks it's oil in this process, and produces soot'
( Here the author alludes (compares) the flame to a mean person(khala), the earthen lamp to a noble person(sajjan), the wick of the lamp to the qualities (guna) of the person, burning of the wick to association with a mean person, sucking of oil in the lamp during the burning process to the gradual loss of virtues of the noble person due to the company of the mean person, production of soot during the burning process of the lamp to bringing out the negative traits in the hitherto noble person's nature. )
i.e. In spite of availability of a pond full of clean water a crow still drinks unclean water of a ditch (kumodakam). Similarly a lowly person (neech) indulges in extra-marital illicit relationships inspite of having a faithful and obedient wife.