Shriyo-nukool Daanena Lajjayaa Kulaangana
.शोभन्ते विद्यया विप्रा क्षत्रिया विजयश्रिया
श्रियोSनुकूलदानेन लज्जया च कुलाङ्गना
A brahmin (Vipra) gets recognition through his learning(Vidya), a Kshatriya by his valour (Vijayashriya), a rich person (Vaishya) by his charitable activities (anukool daan) and women of a clan (Kukaaangana) by their modesty (Lajjaya)
Anwaagat Vidyanaam Anwayaagat Sampadam
Vidushaam ChaPrabhunaam Cha hridayam Naawalipyate.
विदुषां च प्रभूणां च हृदयं नाSवलिप्यते
i.e. Among persons who are very learned(Vidusham) and rich (Prabhu) as a family tradition by inheritance, they do not become proud of being so.
.(Whereas another subhashit (only second line of which I remember) says that -"Nirdhane to dhanam praptam trinwat manya te Jagat " i.e if a poor and illiterate person gets rich and becomes learned, he becomes very proud and considers others insignificant (trinawat-like ordinary grass)
Sulabhahh Purusha Rajan Satatam Priya-vaadinahh
Apriyasya Cha Pathyasya Vaktaa Shrotaa Cha Durlabhh
सुलभाः पुरुषा राजन सततं प्रियवादिनः
अप्रियस्य च पथ्यस्य वक्ता श्रोता च दुर्लभः
i.e. O King ! persons who always speak appeasing to you (priya-vaadi)are available in abundance (Sulabh), but such a persons who has the courage to speak the bitter truth in your interest as also such a persons who listens to such advice are very rare to find (durlabha).
Apriya Pathyasya = An advice , which although not pleasing to hear, but in one's own interest.
यस्मिन देशे न सम्मानो न प्रीतिर्नबान्धवः
न च विद्द्याSSगमः कश्चिन्न तत्र दिवसं वसेत
Yasmin Deshe Na Sammano Na Preetir-na Bandhawah
Na Cha Vidyaagamahh Kaschin-na Tatra Divasam Vaseat.
i.e. One should not live in a country even for a day, where he does not get respect and love (samman/preeti), relatives (Baandhav),and opportunity for acquiring learning(vidyaagamahh).
Lakshmirvasati Jihwaagre Jihwaagre Mitra Bandhwaa
Jihwaagre Bandhanam Praaptam Jihwaagre Maranam Dhruwam.
लक्ष्मीर्वसति जिह्वाग्रे जिह्वाग्रे मित्र बान्ध्वा:
जिह्वाग्रे बन्धनं प्राप्तं जिह्वाग्रे मरणं ध्रुवं
The manner in which one speaks (expresses his thoughts) is very cruicial.The author says that on the tip of one's tongue (Jihwaagre) Godess Lakshmi resides, so also friends and relatives. Through the tip of his tongue one gets bondage and it is also certain (dhruwam) that through its use one can also face death. The moral of this shloka is that if a person has proper control over his speech he can get very rich, have good and reliable friends and relatives. Improper use of speech can land a person into trouble (bandhan) and even result in his death.
अन्यायोपार्जितं द्रव्यं दश वर्षाणि तिष्टति
प्र्याप्येत्वेकादशे वर्षे समूलं च विनश्यति
Anyaayopaarjitam Dravyam Dash Varshaani Tishtati
Prapyetwekaadashe Varshe Samoolam Cha Vinashyati.
i.e. Wealth and money acquired through unlawful and illegal means stays for ten years and by the eleventh year not only such wealth is lost but along with it the wealth earlier acquired or inherited is also destroyed.(samoolam cha vinashyati)
( There are such cases in hundreds where persons get rich by using unfair means detrimental to the society at large, but ultimately they meet a gory death,lose the property in the same manner they acquired or their second generation is so incompetent that all their inherited wealth is ultimately lost.)
ब्राह्मणा गणका वैश्या सारमेयाश्च कुकुटाः
दृष्तेशन्येषु कुप्यन्ति न जाने तस्य कारणम्
Brahmana Ganaka Vaishyaa Saarmeyascha Kukuttah
Drashteshwanyeshu Kupyanti Na Jaane Tasya Kaaranam.
i.e. Brahmins, astrologers(Ganak), prostitutes(Vaishyaa), dogs (Saarmeya), and Cocks (Kukutta), become angry merely on being looked upon,and no body knows the reason for such a behavior.
स एव धन्यो विपदि यः स्वरुपम् न मुञ्चति
त्यजत्यर्क करैस्तप्तं हिमं देहं न शीतताम
Sa Eva Dhanyo Vipadi Yah Swaroopam Na Munchati
Tyajatyarka-karais-taptam Himam Deham Na Sheet-taam.
i.e. Such a person, who does not shed away his inherent good nature and human values, even when he is in great distress and danger, is praiseworthy (Dhanya),
just as Ice (Hima) does not shed away it's coolness when it gets exposed to burning rays of a scorching Sun and gets melted rather than shedding it's coolness.
पद्स्थितस्य पद्मस्य मित्रे वरुण भास्करौ
पदच्युतस्य तस्येव क्लेशदाहकरावुभौ
Pada-sthitasya Padmasya Mitrey Varun Bhaskarou
Pada-chyutasya Tasyeewa Klesh-daahkara Bhuwou.
i.e. When the lotus flower (Padma) is well placed (growing in a pond or lake full of water, then water (Varun) and Sun (Bhaskar) are friendly towards him (help the flowers to grow and bloom) , but once the lotus is not in that environment (pada-chyuta) these very 'friends' cause harm to it (kleshkara) and make it dry up
The underlining theme is that so long a person is in prominent position he gets attention and support . But once he loses the position the same persons who were friendly and helpful to him tend to cause harm to him
मासिमासि समा ज्योत्स्ना पक्षमेरुभयोरपि
तत्रेकः शुक्लपक्षो भूयशः पुण्येरवाप्यते
Maasi Maasi Sama Jyotsna Pakshyo-rubhayorapi
Tatreakah Shukla Paksho-bhuyashah Punyerawapyat
i.e.Month after month there is equal light (brightness) in both the fortnights of waxing and waning moon called Shukla Paksha and Krishna Paksha, but the Shukla Paksha gets all the credit and corners all the credit and is considered auspicious.
The underlining idea behind this Subhashit is that among persons of equal caliber one gets all the credit and adulation, whereas the other person equally competent gets ignored. That is why it is said that "Bhaagyam Phalati Sarvatra, Na Cha Vidya Na Ch Paurusham" i.e. fate (bhagya) is the deciding factor in one's progress and success and his learning and sincere efforts are immaterial.
विद्याभ्यासो विचारश्च समयोरेव शोभते
विवाहश्च विवादश्च समयोरेव शोभते
Vidyabhyaso Vicharashcha Samayoreva Shobhate
Vivahashcha Vivadascha Samayoreva Shobhate.
i.e. The process of learning (Vidyabhyasa) and thinking to do some thing (vichar) is to be done at the appropriate time and then it is fruitful . Similarly marriage (vivah) and argument/settling disputes (Vivad) should be done at the appropriate time.
सत्यं ब्रूयात प्रियं ब्रूयात न ब्रूयात सत्यमप्रियं
प्रियं च सूनृतं ब्रूयात एष धर्मः सनातनः
Priyam Cha Soonratam Brooyaat Eash Dharmahh Sanatanah.
i.e. One should speak. the truth that is palatable to others (priyam) and should not speak such truth which is disliked (apriya Satya). The cardinal principal(Dharmahh Sanatan) is that one should always speak only such truth that is palatable(Soonratam).
गावोः दूरप्रचारेण हिरण्यं लाभलिप्सया
Stree Vinashyati Roopean Brahmanoo Raj-sewaya
Gawoo Doorprachareana Hiranyam Laabh-lipsayaa.
i.e. The cause of downfall of a woman is due to her being very beautiful, of a Brahmin by being in the service of a Raja , of cows due to their straying far away in the wild and of wealth due to too much greed. (That is why it is said that "Atih Sarvatra Varjayeat" that is too much of every thing should be avoided.)
सत्पुत्रेण कुलं नृपेण वसुधा लोकत्रयं विष्णुना
Vaani Vyaakarnean Hansa Mithuner-nadyahh Sabha Panditaih
Satputrean Kulam Nripaen Vasudha Lokatrayam Vasudha.
i.e. The dialect (manner of speaking) of a person is impressive if he has knowledge of Grammer (Vyaakaran), a river is adorned if pairs of swans (Hansa Mithuna) are floating in it, an assembly of persons(Sabha) gets adulation/praise due to the presence of learned persons (Panditaih) , a Kula (family hierarchy) gets glory if competent and honorable sons are born in it as descendants, a Country by having a noble Ruler (Nripa) and the entire Universe (lokatrayam-three loks ,Swarga, Prithvi and Paataa according to Hindu Mythology) by the benevolence of God (Vasudeva).
संवर्धितोपि भुजगः पयसा न वश्य
विश्वासलेश इह नैव बुधैर्विधेयः
-tat Paalkaanapi Nihanti Balaena Sinahh
Vishwasleash Eih Naaiv Budhair-vidheayahh.
i.e. Even by feeding with milk a snake (Bhujaga) is not under the control of it's owner and similarly a Lion can any time kill the person who has domesticated it (paalak). That is why learned people (Budha) say that one should never trust those who are mean (dushta) even if they have been obliged/helped (Upkrita).
सुजनो न याति वैरं परहित कार्ये विनाशकालेपि
चेदेपि चन्दन तरुः सुरभियति मुखं कुठरस्य
Sujano Na yaati Vairam Parhit Kaarye Vinash Kaalepi
Chedeyepi Chandan Taruhh Surbhiyati Mukham Kuthaarasya'
i.e. Honorable persons (Sujan) do not show enmity even if they face danger of extinction e.g. the sandalwood while being chopped by an axe makes it's head fragrant.
उदये सविता रक्तो रक्तास्चास्तसमये तथा
Udaye Savita Raktaas-chaasta-maye Tatha
Sampatyo Cha Vipattyo cha Mahata-mek-roopta.
i.e. The condition of Sun (Savita)is the same at the time of rising(uday) in the morning and setting in the evening(asta samaya). Similarly honorable persons'(mahata) attitude and behavior remains the same when they are affluent(sampatto) and when they are in trouble and facing danger(vipattyo).
येषां क्षणिक योगेन सन्मार्गोSप्यति दुक्खितः
Khalaastu Doortas-tyaajyaam Kantaka Eiv Sarvadaa
Yeshaam Kshanik Yogeana Sanmargopyati Dukhhitahh.
i.e. Mean and lowly persons are like thorns, who should always be avoided and kept at bay , as their company always causes trouble even while travelling through a right path (sanmaarga).
न मूर्खजन संपर्कः सुरेन्द्र भवनेश्वपि
Varam Parvat Durgeshu Bhraantam Vancharaih Sahh
Na Moorkha Jan Sampakahh Surendra Bhawaneshwapi.
i.e. It is preferable to to roam in a dense forests and forts in the company of Aadivasis (Vanchar) rather than be in the company of a foolish person even in a Temple (or a holy place).
Surendra Bhawan =God's abode
असित गिरि समं स्यात कज्जलं सिन्धु पात्रे
लिखति यदि ग्रहीत्वा शारदा सर्वकालम्
तदपि तव गुणानांSमीश पारं न याती
Surtaru Vara Shaakha Lekhani Patramurvi
Likhati Yadi Graheetwa Sharada Sarva Kaalam
Tadapi Tav Gunaanaa-meash Paaram Na Yaati.
i.e. Even if the ink powder(Kajjalam) be a heap like a mountain and Ocean as an ink pot and if a branch of Kalpataru(the famous tree of gods fulfilling all wishes) be used as a pen (lekhani) with the entire Earth(Urvi) as writing paper (patra) and Godess Saraswati (Sharada) continues to write non-stop (sarva kaalam)in your praise,even then she (Saraswati) is not able to fathom your virtues (Guna) and praise you befittingly
तथा पूर्वकृतं कर्मं कर्तारमनुगच्छति
Yatha Dhenu Sahashtreshu Vatso Vindati Maataram
Tathaa Poorva Kratam Karma Kartaar-manugachhati.
i.e. Just as a calf (vatsa) can locate it's mother in a herd of thousands of cows (Dhenu), similarly a person meets his fate according to the deeds done by him. in his earlier birth (poorva krata karma).
धनैर्निष्कुलीना कुलीना भवन्ति
धनेभ्यः परो बान्धवो नास्ति लोके
Dhanair-nishkulina Kulinaa Bhawanti, Dhanairaapadam Maanava Nistaranti
Dhanebhyah Paro Bandhawai Naasti Lokey, Dhananyarjayadhwam Dhanyarjayadhwam.
If a person is moneyed (Dhani) even if he is from a backward caste (niskulin) he is treated like an upper caste person(Kulin), people come out of calamities (Aapada) with it's help. In this world none is a better friend and relative than money. So earn more money, more and more money.
आत्मनो मुख दोषेन बध्यन्ते शुक सारिका
Aatmano Mukha-doshean Badhyante Shuk Sarikah
i.e. Parrots and Mynaas (birds which can imitate human voice) get entrapped and killed only due to their this special faculty (mukha dosha),whereas cranes (Baka) are not killed (because of their remaining silent (maun), which implies that remaining silent ( not speaking unnecessarily and untimely) solves all problems
गतवयसामपि पुन्सां येषामर्था भवन्ति ते तरुणाः
अर्थेव तु ये हीना ब्रद्धास्ते यौवनेऽपि स्यु .
Gatvayasa-mapi Punsaam Yeshamartha Bhawanti Tey Tarunahh
Artheyna To Yey Heena Vraddhaaste Yowaneypi Syuhh.
i.e. Aged persons (gat vayasa) if they are rich are treated and behave like young persons(tarunah). On the other hand persons without money (artha)become and behave like aged persons even in the prime of their youth.
गुणवन्तः क्लिश्यन्ते प्रायेण भवन्ति निर्गुणाः सुखिनः
बन्धनमायन्ति शुका यथेष्टसंचारिणः काकाः
Gunawantah Klishyante Prayeana Bhawanti Nirgunahh Sukhinahh
Bandhanmaayanti Shuka Yatheshta-sanchaarinahh Kaakaahh.
i.e. In general persons having skills (Guna) face hardships (Klishyante), whereas those who have none (Nirguna) remain care free and happy (Sukhi) e.g. parrots are entrapped and kept in cages and crows roam in the sky care free.
Shaashtrawit-satyavaadi Cha Grasthopi Vimuchyate.
i.e.A person,who has earned his wealth through fair and legal means (nyaayawit) becomes religious and knowledgeable (tatwa gyannishtha),fond of attending to guests,(atithi priya), expert in various arts and crafts (shashtrawit), trthful b(satyavaadi)and ultimately gets salvation(viumuchyate) from family life (grahastha).
स्वभाव कठिनास्यास्य कृत्रिमाँ विभ्रतो नतिम,
गुणोSपि परहिंसायै चापस्य च खलस्य च
Swabhaava Kahinasyaasya Krittimaam Vibhrato Natim
Gunopi Par-hinsaayey Chaapasya Cha Khalasya Cha.
i.e. The attitude (swabhava) of mean and crooked persons is very unwieldy and cruel (kathina) like a bow(chaapa). Both wield (natim) artificialy (krittimam) if force is applied on them, but as their true nature is, the ultimate result is harm to others. (par hinsaa)